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Down but not out: Unstable resilience and strategies to stabilize involvement of low‐income fathers.

September 2007

Kevin Roy, Rob Palkovitz, and Jay Fagan.

Download 'working_paper07-24.pdf'.


Father-child relationships are not static even under the best of circumstances (Belsky, 1984). They require frequent adjustments and adaptations as both father and child change and develop and experience different circumstances, challenges, and resources (Palkovitz, 1987). Other family relationships shift as well, and as a result, fathers and families experience transitions within fathering continuously. Palkovitz & Palm (2005) list a range of triggers for transitions in paternal involvement, including child development, family crisis, individual changes in the father, cohort or historical shifts, changes in employment, and counter transitional changes.

Child Well-being and Child Development, Disadvantaged Males and Fatherhood